Guide to Safe Vaping and Finding your APV’s sweetspot!

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I have spent months gleaning this info from various sources(forums, websites, etc.etc.). I have tried to rewrite it in a way that is easily understood by the newest vapers as well as the experienced vapers too.

This is info that most Variable Voltage Device users should learn and take to heart!(it will help ego users too!) This will help you to get the best performance out of your vaping equipment and have a much more enjoyable time vaping.

“To Start this off!”
This is concerning the use of LR,HV and regular attys and cartos on Fat Batts (i.e., eGO-type) and mods of at least 450 mAh.
If you are vaping with a standard skinny e-cig (e.g., penstyle, mini, or super-mini), you will probably not be interested in this info.

“LR” stands for low-resistance (for use on 3.7V or less batteries).
“HV” stands for high-voltage and, although that is the term such attys go by, it really is a misnomer.
They are used on high voltage mods, but the atomizers are high resistance. When appropriately matched with the voltage of the fat batt or mod, LR and HV atomizers are quite safe [do make sure to keep your atty constantly moist] … and can dramatically enhance the intensity of the vape(vapor, flavor, and throat hit).

To understand this HV and LR stuff, it helps to be familiar with Ohms Law … which really isn’t a big deal to grasp.

Power (measured in watts) is the intensity of the vape. 6-8 watts is the “sweet spot” for most vapers.
Current (measured in amps) is what can burn out atomizers. Roughly speaking: around 1.5 amps is fine; 2.0+ amps is risky.
But, Watts and amps are not properties of atomizers or batteries. They are derived from atomizer resistance (measured in ohms) and battery voltage (measured, of course, in volts).

The formula’s are:

Watts = Volts X Volts / Ohms
Amps = Volts / Ohms

So we need to balance battery voltage with atomizer resistance to get an ideal vape intensity (6-8 watts or so) without burning out the atomizer (i.e., not let those amps get too high). If the voltage is too low and/or the atty resistance is too high (relative to each other), the watts are low and you get a wimpy vape (little TH, vapor, and flavor). On the other hand, if the voltage is too high and/or the atty resistance is too low, the amps are high and you can burn out the atomizer.

“Regarding Resistance and Voltage Numbers”

In what follows – and throughout the vaping community – we refer to atomizer resistance and battery voltage as a set number, e.g., 2.3 ohms and 3.7V. In fact, atomizer resistance should be viewed as +/- 0.1 ohms, e.g., a “2.3” ohm atty is more like 2.2-2.4 ohms and actual battery voltage drops considerably from fresh off the charger to stopping. The “nominal” voltage is more of an average or midpoint. For example, a “3.7V” battery starts out at 4.2V fully charged and drops down to 3.2V before demanding to be recharged. [Part of the appeal of high mAh batteries is that they stay at the higher end of the range longer than a low mAh battery.]

“Standard (510) Atomizers”

A standard 2.3 ohm 510 atty on a 3.4V eGO (i.e., a typical eGO/Tornado, Riva, or Hello 016 kit) generates a safe 1.5 amps
… but only 5 watts of power: not bad, but not intense enough for many vapers.  That same atty on a 3.7V mod yields 6 watts and 1.7 amps: nice vaping with little risk of atty burnout.

[NOTE: Other atomizers (e.g., 306, 801, 901 cartomizers) have different standard resistances.]

“HV Atomizers”

Most “HV” atomizers are 4.5 ohms resistance and are intended for use on 6V mods (using two 3.0V batteries). This results in 8 watts of vaping (very nice) and 1.3 amps current (a conservative level). Some HV attys are 3.5 ohms, intended for use on 5V mods: 7 watts and 1.4 amps. [BTW, 3.5 ohms is the resistance of a standard 801 atomizer. Unsurprisingly, prior to the advent of LR and HV atomizers, the 801 was very popular with users of 5V mods like the Prodigy V1 and V2.] Others are 5.2 ohms, intended for 7.4V mods (using two 3.7V batteries): 10.5 watts (too high for me, but good for some I guess) and 1.4 amps. So a correct matching of these “HV” atomizers with these 5.0, 6.0, and 7.4 voltage levels delivers a powerful yet safe vape.

“LR Atomizers”

LR atomizers are intended to yield vape intensity (watts) on 3.4V or 3.7V similar to what the higher voltage mods deliver.
But some of them generate atomizer-blowing current. The further you push the amps above 1.5, the greater the risk of burning out an atomizer (although I wouldn’t worry too much about anything up to 2.0 amps). The typical resistance of LR atomizers is 1.5 ohms. Vapers routinely use such 1.5 ohm LR attys on 3.4V egos (7.7 watts and 2.3 amps) all the time: excellent vape intensity … but notice that suppliers warn about limited life spans of such LR atomizers. [Used on a 3.7V mod, the amps are 2.5 … and start out at 2.8 amps when the battery is a fully charged 4.2V.] There is no physical danger in such high amps – nothing blows up. It’s just that these 1.5 ohm attys die faster than standard (or high) resistance atomizers. Another consequence of the high amps created by 1.5 ohm LR atomizers is that they should only be used on batteries of at least 450 mAh. Otherwise, you risk damaging the battery as well.

I have used 2.0 ohm LR atomizers on a 3.7V mod: Which means 6.8 watts (which is a great vape) and 1.85 amps (pretty safe).
On an eGO, that would be a fairly satisfying 5.8 watts and non-risky 1.7 amps.

“Where can I get them?”

Most suppliers carry LR atomizers and cartomizers. HV attys and cartomizers are more difficult to find.

“For a Litle More Info!”

Here below you will find a chart showing the various power levels correlating the voltage you are running or wanting to run and the various carto/atty resistances. The yellowish area you want to avoid as this is very low power and will produce little to no vapor or anything else. The next section is the bluish section, this is the sweet spot areas for each resistance. You just have to play around in this area with your Variable Voltage device to find what power level you like best. the next area is the redish area, you want to avoid these levels at all costs as these power levels can burn up and destroy attys and cartos. They say the best range is about 4watts to about 8watts. I have found my spot at about 7.2watts in most voltage ranges depending on carto resistance. Remember most VV units are about 3.3volts to 6 volts and most ego’s are approximately 3.4 – 3.7 volts depending on the battery charge.

“The Chart”



I hope that you find this info valueable to your vaping experience and enjoy it as much as I have enjoyed putting it together!


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  1. Sandi says

    Thats a lot of work and research woody, Thank you for this info and guide. Im afraid im a bit thick when it comes to ohms amps and voltage. i just stick em on and hope for the best 🙂

  2. Brian76 says

    Thank you so much woody for you’re hard work
    this is a novice VV users bible. with so many different ohm cartomizers, this guide will help us easily find that “sweet spot”.

  3. hificat101 says

    Cool. You spent a lot of time putting this together and did a great job. I’m going to share this on Facebook for my new to vaping friends can read it.

  4. Pocketplayer says

    Geez Woody…I got a woody reading this! Excellent.

  5. Vargr says

    Amazing piece of work. You’ve obviously spent alot of time with this expose and I’ve found it very helpful. I especially love “The Chart”! I don’t see how this could be more helpful.

    Just more proof that shows the world that “We the Vapers” are intelligent, well studied individuals and not simply indulging in the next passing fad.

  6. MorrinB says

    Thanks for putting this out there Woody! It has really been a big help to me as I’ve started my journey into VV. Awesome work man!

  7. Johnathan Brown (Sepsis) says

    Thanks for sharing this. especially the graph! I like my vapes between 9 and 10 watts

  8. tiffjamesnjj says

    i remember when i first started to vape and this was so cryptic… now it all makes sense!

  9. Kevin Dec says

    Thanks Woody chart will be good referance. I do find myself on the high side of chart. HH357 2.5 ohm’s I am vaping at 5 volts, and a 3 ohm cart at 5.2, maybe I can drop down a little. Thanks again.

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  13. cathy says

    i’ve been looking at the chart, not totally understanding it, my ohms 2.0, my voltage is set at 3.7, looking down on the chart , it meets at 6.85… what does that mean?????

  14. cathy says

    how do you read and understand the chart, , the scale in the center of the chart, what do those numbers mean to me?

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  20. brad says

    what about sub ohms? im pushing 35W into a 0.4 Ohm and reading 3.9Volts to get a good taste, big plume and little regard to the consumption of juice.
    seems off the chart eh.

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